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A Review on Free Association: Methods, Theories, and Applications in Psychology

Yıl 2019, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 1, 59 - 80, 02.07.2019

Öz

The free association method is used to identify other words to which a word is semantically related. Free association, which has been used for various purposes in the field of psychology for many years, plays an important role in scientific research on the mind by helping to model the associational structure of words. In this review, the free association method, related theories and the research areas in which it is applied are discussed with a focus on relatively new ones. Starting from its historical development, experimental methods, free association norms and the reliability and validity of these norms, organization of semantic memory and explanation of semantic networks from the Graph Theory perspective are mentioned. In addition, various studies in international and national literature using free association and its application areas in psychology are also discussed. Free association is used in the fields of cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience as well as in group and cultural comparison studies. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of free association method together with our suggestions about future studies are discussed. This review is thought to be an important resource for scholars who study semantic memory and word associations.

Kaynakça

  • Akırmak, Ü., & Orhon, M. A. (2018). Türkçe kelimelerin serbest çağrışım normları üzerine güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 33(81), 62-81.
  • Banerjee, J. C. (1994). Associative Reactions. in Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychological terms (s. 20-25). New Delhi: MD Publications.
  • Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science, 286(5439), 509-512.
  • Beckage, N. M., & Colunga, E. (2016). Understanding complex systems towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks. In Language Networks as Models of Cognition: Understanding Cognition through Language, 3-28.
  • Borge-Holthoefer, J., Moreno, Y.& Arenas, A. (2011). Modeling abnormal priming in alzheimers patients with a free association network. PLoS ONE, 6(8).
  • Brunyé, T. T., Gagnon, S. A., Paczynski, M., Shenhav, A., Mahoney, C. R., & Taylor, H. A. (2013). Happiness by association: Breadth of free association influences affective states. Cognition, 127(1), 93-98.
  • Bruza, P., Kitto, K., Nelson, D., & McEvoy, C. (2009). Is there something quantum-like about the human mental lexicon?.Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53(5), 362-377.
  • Cattell, J. M. (1887). Experiments on the association of ideas. Mind, 12(45), 68-74.
  • Cattell, J. M., & Bryant, S. (1889). Mental association investigated by experiment. Mind, 14(54), 230–250.
  • Çiftçi, S. (2009). Kelime Çağrışımlarının cinsiyet değişkenine göre gösterdiği temel nitelikler üzerine bir deneme. Turkish Studies, 4(3), 633-654.
  • Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82(6), 407-428.
  • Comesaña, M., Fraga, I., Moreira, A. J., Frade, C. S., & Soares, A. P. (2014). Erratum to: Free associate norms for 139 European Portuguese words for children from different age groups. Behavior Research Methods, 46(2), 575-575.
  • Coronges, K. A., Stacy, A. W., & Valente, T. W. (2007). Structural comparison of cognitive associative networks in two populations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(9), 2097-2129.
  • De Deyne, S. & Storms, G. (2008). Word associations: Norms for 1,424 Dutch words in a continuous task. Behavior Research Methods, 40(1), 198-205.
  • De Deyne, S., Navarro, D. J., & Storms, G. (2013). Better explanations of lexical and semantic cognition using networks derived from continued rather than single-word associations. Behavior Research Methods, 45(2), 480-498.
  • De Deyne, S., Navarro, D. J., Perfors, A., Brysbaert, M., & Storms, G. (2018). The “Small World of Words” English word association norms for over 12,000 cue words. Behavior Research Methods, 1-20.
  • De Deyne, S., Verheyen, S., & Storms, G. (2016). Structure and Organization of the Mental Lexicon: A Network Approach Derived from Syntactic Dependency Relations and Word Associations. Understanding Complex Systems Towards a Theoretical Framework for Analyzing Complex Linguistic Networks, 47-79.
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
  • Deese, J. (1965). The structure of associations in language and thought. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Dubossarsky, H., Deyne, S. D., & Hills, T. T. (2017). Quantifying the structure of free association networks across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 53(8), 1560-1570.
  • Dunn, M. E., & Goldman, A. M. (2000). Validation of multidimensional scaling-based modeling of alcohol expectancies in memory: Age and drinking-related differences in expectancies of children assessed as first associates. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(11), 1639-1646.
  • Erdös, P. and Rényi, A. (1960) On the evolution of random graphs. Publication of the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 5, 17-61.
  • Fernandez, A., Diez, E., Alonso, M. A., & Beato, M. S. (2004). Free-association norms for the Spanish names of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(3), 577-583.
  • Ferrand, L. (2001). Normes d'associations verbales pour 260 mots “abstraits”. L'Année Psychologique, 101(4), 683-721.
  • Ferrand, L., & Alario, F. X. (1998). Normes d'associations verbales pour 366 noms d'objets concrets. L'Année Psychologique, 98(4), 659-709.
  • Galton, F. (1879). Psychometric experiments. Brain, 2(2), 149-162.
  • Goldstein, R., & Vitevitch, M. S. (2017). The influence of closeness centrality on lexical processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1683.
  • Gollan, T. H., Salmon, D. P., & Paxton, J. L. (2006). Word association in early Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language, 99(3), 289-303.
  • Gravino, P., Servedio, V. D., Barrat, A., & Loreto, V. (2012). Complex structures and semantics in free word association. Advances in Complex Systems, 15, 1250054.
  • Gray, C., Anderson, S., Chen, E. E., Kelly, J. M., Christian, M., Patrick, J., . . . Levis, K. (2018). “Forward Flow”: A new measure to quantify free thought and predict creativity. American Psychologist.
  • Güçlü, R. (2015). A Linguistic study on word association behavior of Turkish speaking children in urban and rural settings: A socio-cognitive perspective (Master’s thesis). Available from Yükseköğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı Tez Merkezi database. (Tez No: 399628)
  • Guida, A., & Lenci, A. (2007). Semantic properties of word associations to Italian verbs. Italian Journal of Linguistics, 19(2), 293-326.
  • Harrington, B. (2006). SaskNet: A spreading activation based semantic network (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Oxford University.
  • Heckers, S., Rauch, S., Goff, D., Savage, C., Schacter, D., Fischman, A., & Alpert, N. (1998). Impaired recruitment of the hippocampus during conscious recollection in schizophrenia. Nature Neuroscience, 1(4), 318-323.
  • Hills, T. T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J., Sheya, A., & Smith, L. (2009). Longitudinal analysis of early semantic networks: Preferential attachment or preferential acquisition?.Psychological Science, 20(6), 729-739.
  • Hintzman, D. L. (1976). Repetition and memory. G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation içinde (47–91). New York: Academic Press.
  • Ioannidis JPA (2005) Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med, 2(8): e124.
  • İstifçi, İ. (2010). Playing with words: A study on word association responses. The Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), 360-368.
  • Joffe, H., & Elsey, J. W. (2014). Free association in psychology and the grid elaboration method. Review of General Psychology, 18(3), 173-185.
  • Jung, C. G. (1910). The association method. The American Journal of Psychology, 21, 219–269.
  • Jung, J., Li, N., & Akama, H. (2010). Network Analysis of Korean Word Associations. HLT-NAACL 2010.
  • Kenett, Y. N., Anaki, D., & Faust, M. (2014). Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 407.
  • Kent, G.H., & Rosanoff, A.J. (1910). A study of association in insanity. American Journal of Insanity, 67(1), 37-96.
  • Kircher, T., Whitney, C., Krings, T., Huber, W., & Weis, S. (2008). Hippocampal dysfunction during free word association in male patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 101(1-3), 242-255.
  • Lambert, W. E., & Moore, N. (1966). Word-association responses: Comparisons of American and French monolinguals with Canadian monolinguals and bilinguals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(3), 313-320.
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  • Lemoine, J., Kmiec, R., & Roland-Lévy, C. (2017). Characterization of controlled gamblers and pathological gamblers using the social representation theory. Revue Européenne De Psychologie Appliquée, 67(1), 13-23.
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Serbest Çağrışım Üzerine Derleme: Yöntemler, Teoriler ve Psikolojide Kullanım Alanları

Yıl 2019, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 1, 59 - 80, 02.07.2019

Öz


Serbest çağrışım yöntemi bir kelimenin anlamca yakın ilişkili olduğu diğer kelimeleri belirlemekte kullanılır. Özellikle psikoloji alanında yıllardır çeşitli amaçlar için kullanılan serbest çağrışım, kelimeleri ve kelimelerin birbirleriyle olan anlam bağlantılarını içeren ilişkisel yapıyı modellemeye yardımcı olarak zihin üzerine bilimsel araştırmalarda önemli bir rol oynar. Bu derlemede, serbest çağrışım yöntemi, ilişkili teoriler ve kullanıldığı araştırma alanları görece daha yeni olanlara odaklanarak ele alınmıştır. Tarihsel gelişiminden başlayarak deneysel yöntemler, çağrışım normları ve normların güvenirlik ve geçerliği ile birlikte anlamsal belleğin organizasyonu ve anlamsal ağların Grafik Teorisi perspektifinden açıklanması gibi konulardan bahsedilmiştir. Bununla beraber serbest çağrışımın kullanıldığı uluslararası ve ulusal alanyazındaki çeşitli çalışmalar ve psikolojideki uygulama alanları da ele alınmıştır. Serbest çağrışım bilişsel psikoloji, klinik psikoloji ve nörobilim alanlarında kullanılmakla beraber gruplar ve kültürlerarası karşılaştırmalarda da kullanılmaktadır. Son olarak, serbest çağrışımın güçlü ve zayıf yanları ve gelecek çalışmalar hakkında önerilerimiz tartışılmıştır. Bu derlemenin anlamsal bellek ve kelime çağrışımları ile ilgili araştırma yapan bilim insanlarına önemli bir kaynak olacağı düşünülmektedir. 

Kaynakça

  • Akırmak, Ü., & Orhon, M. A. (2018). Türkçe kelimelerin serbest çağrışım normları üzerine güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 33(81), 62-81.
  • Banerjee, J. C. (1994). Associative Reactions. in Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychological terms (s. 20-25). New Delhi: MD Publications.
  • Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science, 286(5439), 509-512.
  • Beckage, N. M., & Colunga, E. (2016). Understanding complex systems towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks. In Language Networks as Models of Cognition: Understanding Cognition through Language, 3-28.
  • Borge-Holthoefer, J., Moreno, Y.& Arenas, A. (2011). Modeling abnormal priming in alzheimers patients with a free association network. PLoS ONE, 6(8).
  • Brunyé, T. T., Gagnon, S. A., Paczynski, M., Shenhav, A., Mahoney, C. R., & Taylor, H. A. (2013). Happiness by association: Breadth of free association influences affective states. Cognition, 127(1), 93-98.
  • Bruza, P., Kitto, K., Nelson, D., & McEvoy, C. (2009). Is there something quantum-like about the human mental lexicon?.Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53(5), 362-377.
  • Cattell, J. M. (1887). Experiments on the association of ideas. Mind, 12(45), 68-74.
  • Cattell, J. M., & Bryant, S. (1889). Mental association investigated by experiment. Mind, 14(54), 230–250.
  • Çiftçi, S. (2009). Kelime Çağrışımlarının cinsiyet değişkenine göre gösterdiği temel nitelikler üzerine bir deneme. Turkish Studies, 4(3), 633-654.
  • Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82(6), 407-428.
  • Comesaña, M., Fraga, I., Moreira, A. J., Frade, C. S., & Soares, A. P. (2014). Erratum to: Free associate norms for 139 European Portuguese words for children from different age groups. Behavior Research Methods, 46(2), 575-575.
  • Coronges, K. A., Stacy, A. W., & Valente, T. W. (2007). Structural comparison of cognitive associative networks in two populations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(9), 2097-2129.
  • De Deyne, S. & Storms, G. (2008). Word associations: Norms for 1,424 Dutch words in a continuous task. Behavior Research Methods, 40(1), 198-205.
  • De Deyne, S., Navarro, D. J., & Storms, G. (2013). Better explanations of lexical and semantic cognition using networks derived from continued rather than single-word associations. Behavior Research Methods, 45(2), 480-498.
  • De Deyne, S., Navarro, D. J., Perfors, A., Brysbaert, M., & Storms, G. (2018). The “Small World of Words” English word association norms for over 12,000 cue words. Behavior Research Methods, 1-20.
  • De Deyne, S., Verheyen, S., & Storms, G. (2016). Structure and Organization of the Mental Lexicon: A Network Approach Derived from Syntactic Dependency Relations and Word Associations. Understanding Complex Systems Towards a Theoretical Framework for Analyzing Complex Linguistic Networks, 47-79.
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
  • Deese, J. (1965). The structure of associations in language and thought. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Dubossarsky, H., Deyne, S. D., & Hills, T. T. (2017). Quantifying the structure of free association networks across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 53(8), 1560-1570.
  • Dunn, M. E., & Goldman, A. M. (2000). Validation of multidimensional scaling-based modeling of alcohol expectancies in memory: Age and drinking-related differences in expectancies of children assessed as first associates. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(11), 1639-1646.
  • Erdös, P. and Rényi, A. (1960) On the evolution of random graphs. Publication of the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 5, 17-61.
  • Fernandez, A., Diez, E., Alonso, M. A., & Beato, M. S. (2004). Free-association norms for the Spanish names of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(3), 577-583.
  • Ferrand, L. (2001). Normes d'associations verbales pour 260 mots “abstraits”. L'Année Psychologique, 101(4), 683-721.
  • Ferrand, L., & Alario, F. X. (1998). Normes d'associations verbales pour 366 noms d'objets concrets. L'Année Psychologique, 98(4), 659-709.
  • Galton, F. (1879). Psychometric experiments. Brain, 2(2), 149-162.
  • Goldstein, R., & Vitevitch, M. S. (2017). The influence of closeness centrality on lexical processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1683.
  • Gollan, T. H., Salmon, D. P., & Paxton, J. L. (2006). Word association in early Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language, 99(3), 289-303.
  • Gravino, P., Servedio, V. D., Barrat, A., & Loreto, V. (2012). Complex structures and semantics in free word association. Advances in Complex Systems, 15, 1250054.
  • Gray, C., Anderson, S., Chen, E. E., Kelly, J. M., Christian, M., Patrick, J., . . . Levis, K. (2018). “Forward Flow”: A new measure to quantify free thought and predict creativity. American Psychologist.
  • Güçlü, R. (2015). A Linguistic study on word association behavior of Turkish speaking children in urban and rural settings: A socio-cognitive perspective (Master’s thesis). Available from Yükseköğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı Tez Merkezi database. (Tez No: 399628)
  • Guida, A., & Lenci, A. (2007). Semantic properties of word associations to Italian verbs. Italian Journal of Linguistics, 19(2), 293-326.
  • Harrington, B. (2006). SaskNet: A spreading activation based semantic network (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Oxford University.
  • Heckers, S., Rauch, S., Goff, D., Savage, C., Schacter, D., Fischman, A., & Alpert, N. (1998). Impaired recruitment of the hippocampus during conscious recollection in schizophrenia. Nature Neuroscience, 1(4), 318-323.
  • Hills, T. T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J., Sheya, A., & Smith, L. (2009). Longitudinal analysis of early semantic networks: Preferential attachment or preferential acquisition?.Psychological Science, 20(6), 729-739.
  • Hintzman, D. L. (1976). Repetition and memory. G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation içinde (47–91). New York: Academic Press.
  • Ioannidis JPA (2005) Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med, 2(8): e124.
  • İstifçi, İ. (2010). Playing with words: A study on word association responses. The Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), 360-368.
  • Joffe, H., & Elsey, J. W. (2014). Free association in psychology and the grid elaboration method. Review of General Psychology, 18(3), 173-185.
  • Jung, C. G. (1910). The association method. The American Journal of Psychology, 21, 219–269.
  • Jung, J., Li, N., & Akama, H. (2010). Network Analysis of Korean Word Associations. HLT-NAACL 2010.
  • Kenett, Y. N., Anaki, D., & Faust, M. (2014). Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 407.
  • Kent, G.H., & Rosanoff, A.J. (1910). A study of association in insanity. American Journal of Insanity, 67(1), 37-96.
  • Kircher, T., Whitney, C., Krings, T., Huber, W., & Weis, S. (2008). Hippocampal dysfunction during free word association in male patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 101(1-3), 242-255.
  • Lambert, W. E., & Moore, N. (1966). Word-association responses: Comparisons of American and French monolinguals with Canadian monolinguals and bilinguals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(3), 313-320.
  • Landauer, T. K., & Dumais, S. T. (1997). A solution to Plato’s problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104, 211–240.
  • Lemoine, J., Kmiec, R., & Roland-Lévy, C. (2017). Characterization of controlled gamblers and pathological gamblers using the social representation theory. Revue Européenne De Psychologie Appliquée, 67(1), 13-23.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ümit AKIRMAK

Bahar TARAKÇI

Melisa YAVUZ

Berkutay MERT

Yayımlanma Tarihi 2 Temmuz 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019Cilt: 2 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA AKIRMAK, Ü., TARAKÇI, B., YAVUZ, M., MERT, B. (2019). Serbest Çağrışım Üzerine Derleme: Yöntemler, Teoriler ve Psikolojide Kullanım Alanları. International Journal of Economics Administrative and Social Sciences, 2(1), 59-80.